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In this debate, Miller and Hoffmann 1 9 9 5 and Stark 2 0 0 2 are among the rst to have shifted away fromasking why women aremore religious thanmen, to asking whymen are less religious than women.

However, the essentialist category of women has been questioned, pointing out that women are opposed to each other likemen, through their different af liations of class, age, ethnicity, beliefs or sexuality, and that they can also be agents in the religious eld Rochefort, 2 0 0 7 : 1 2 -1 3.

Contact : eressokiyya gmail. Contact : silviabruzzi yahoo. The interrelations between gender, religion and power have led scholars to question whether religion perpetuates traditional gender roles and inequality e.

Gendered socialization is described as an inherent factor affecting the lower representation of women heading religious establishments Cornwall, 1 9 8 8.

The nexus of religion, gender, identity, human rights and politics is another subject that has been observed in different parts of the globe.

As Florence Rochefort points out, the interplay between the political and religious spheres is crucial in the social -cultural construction and organization of gender roles.

Religions contribute to fostering gender ideologies that are linked to cultural heritage, political and moral values, as well as to forms of authority and hierarchy.

Religious phenomena have contributed to the questioning of pivotal the -oretical concepts in gender studies, including that of agency.

Christian queens and saints are at the core of these studies and represent an important contribution in lling a gap inEthiopian history, which was mainly written from the male point of view Böll, 2 0 0 3 ; Belete Bizuneh, 2 0 0 1 ; Selamawit Mecca, 2 0 0 6 , 2 0 0 9 ; Wion, 2 0 1 2.

Women, Gender and Religions in Ethiopia It has been noticed that both Christian and Muslim hagiographies tend to underrepresent women saints Selamawit Mecca, 2 0 0 6 ; Bruzzi, 2 0 1 1 ; Meron Zeleke, 2 0 1 5 , and that the literary production at large overshadows women subjects in the historical process.

While observing how ritual practices are divided along on gender -based lines, contributors agreed in acknowledging the domination of men in formal ritual practices and the marginalization of women in the liturgy of the Orthodox Church.

In this vein, studies analyzed social and historical processes of the construction of femininity Wright, 2 0 0 2 and masculinity Persoon, 2 0 0 2 ; Fisseha Tadesse, 2 0 0 2 ; Bromber, 2 0 0 7 in the Christian Orthodox Church.

Other studies focused instead on gender dynamics related to Christian and Islamic sainthood Gibb, 2 0 0 0 ; Marcus, 2 0 0 2. The present special issue addresses the anthropological and historical analysis of the relation and intersection of gender and religion mainly in Ethiopia, but with a case study also on Eritrea.

The relation, confrontation and intersection of gender and religion is analyzed with a focus on women, taking into consideration themultiple and changingmanifestations of religion in the diverse social and cultural contexts of the region.

The authors re ect critically on gender in its interpretative and imaginative dimensions and as a fundamental principle of social ordering and a socially constructed phenomenon.

To do so, a plurality of sources, methodologies and approaches are employed. The questions addressed by the different contributions in this special issue focus on such issues as: what are the various roles women play in different religious establishments?

How is the social construction of gender portrayed in the different religious landscapes of the region? Howis religiosity expressed in the everyday lives of women?

The contributions point out how well -established gender roles can alternatively be imposed, supported, negotiated, subverted or contested in religious practices and discourses which otherwise are thought to be independent domains not affected by non -spiritual worldviews.

Available ethnographic works hint at the discourse of authenticity and howgender is acted out in the debates of religious orthodoxy Meron Zeleke, 2 0 1 3.

The direct and indirect role of religion in gender -based violence is another important topic addressed by scholars Hirut Terefe, 2 0 0 2.

Several works. Zar is also considered to be a healing cult that empowers individuals, mainly women, through a kind of group therapy Messing, 1 9 5 8 ; Vecchiato, 1 9 9 3 ; Boddy, 1 9 8 8.

In Sudan, Janice Boddy has focused on the feminine body of a possessed medium as the site of a struggle out of which a subaltern discourse and gender relations are expressed, and in which through trances, women have the opportunity to claimthe action space that is otherwise denied them in their everyday lives.

Concerns and anxieties about reproductive diseases that might lead to divorce or polygamy are relieved by resorting to zar. Through spirit possession, with the support of foreign bodies from a parallel, yet separate world, women can reaf rm, criticize and reinterpret cultural values while avoiding the shame that would otherwise be brought on them by abandonment of traditional values.

In this way, human con icts are reconciled. The relationship between possession cults and power also merits special attention. It has been suggested that possession cults express an embedded critique of colonial hegemonies— whether national or global— whose effects are felt deeply, although not exclusively, bywomen, and that in this sense, cults historically represent expressions of cultural resistance and counter -hegemonic narratives.

Bilal ibn Ribah , the first Muezzin , the person chosen to call the faithful to prayer, and one of the foremost companions of Muhammad, was born in Mecca to an Abyssinian mother.

Moreover, the largest portion of non-Arab Companions of Muhammad belonged to Ethiopian ethnic groups.

According to the most recent CSA governmental data, Muslims are State Department estimated that "approximately 45 percent of the population is Sunni Muslim.

Islam first arrived in Ethiopia in with the First Migration to Abyssinia. Addis Ababa , Ethiopia's capital city, is home to about , Muslims or The Beta Israel , also known as the Falashas though this term is considered derogatory , are a long-isolated group of African Jews who have lived in Ethiopia since antiquity.

Their existence was not widely known to the outside world for many years, and they likewise were not aware of other Jewish groups outside of their own community.

After this, Operation Moses and Operation Solomon , conducted in and , respectively, airlifted the vast majority of the Ethiopian Jewish population to Israel, where there is currently a population of , Beta Israel.

A small Jewish community still exists in Ethiopia, although it is mostly composed of Falash Mura , Ethiopian Jews who converted to Christianity in the past, and as such have not been recognized as Jews by the State of Israel, but have returned to Judaism the Falash Mura now number some 22, An estimated 2.

The largest numbers of practitioners of traditional religions are in the SNNPR about , people and Oromia , Ethiopia is the spiritual homeland of the Rastafari movement , whose adherents believe Ethiopia is Zion.

The Emperor himself was the defender of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, that also has a concept of Zion, although it represents a unique and complex concept, referring figuratively to St.

Mary , but also to Ethiopia as a bastion of Christianity surrounded by Muslims and other religions, much like Mount Zion in the Bible [ citation needed ].

It is also used to refer to Axum , the ancient capital and religious centre of Ethiopian Orthodox Christians, or to its primary church, called Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion.

Freedom of religion is provided by the constitution of , and freedom of worship had also been guaranteed by the and Constitutions of Ethiopia, although in certain localities this principle is not always respected in practice.

There is no state religion, and it is forbidden to form political parties based upon religion; all religious groups are required to register with the government, and renew their registration once every three years.

It is a crime in Ethiopia to incite one religion against another. Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church published works by an unknown author written in Ge'ez and translated to Amharic in which claimed Habesha should refrain from sexual intercourse with Oromo , Muslims, Shanqella , Falasha and animals because it was an abomination.

S ambassador David H. Shinn stated in that the Ethiopian leadership continued to be largely Christian. In December several mosques and Muslim owned businesses were attacked in the Christian dominated Amhara Region.

In the Hadith , Prophet Mohammed explicitly prohibited jihad against the Abyssinians as long as they were not hostile to Muslims. In the early fourteenth century Emperor Amda Seyon launched a crusade against the neighboring Muslim state of Ifat Sultanate , several mosques were demolished.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 1 August Islam Pentay Protestantism Traditional faiths 2.

Roman Catholicism 0. Others 0. Main article: Christianity in Ethiopia. Main article: Islam in Ethiopia. Main article: Beta Israel.

See also: Waaq. Retrieved 16 March The History of Islam in Africa. Ohio University Press. Oxford University Press. Tablets of the Divine Plan Paperback ed.

Research notes. Retrieved 21 December The Ministry of the Custodians — The Association of Religion Data Archives. Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 30 August Islamic Reform in Twentieth-Century Africa.

Ethiopian muslim women

For the last three and a half decades, gender has been among the most popular topics in the social -scienti c study of religion around the globe.

In this debate, Miller and Hoffmann 1 9 9 5 and Stark 2 0 0 2 are among the rst to have shifted away fromasking why women aremore religious thanmen, to asking whymen are less religious than women.

However, the essentialist category of women has been questioned, pointing out that women are opposed to each other likemen, through their different af liations of class, age, ethnicity, beliefs or sexuality, and that they can also be agents in the religious eld Rochefort, 2 0 0 7 : 1 2 -1 3.

Contact : eressokiyya gmail. Contact : silviabruzzi yahoo. The interrelations between gender, religion and power have led scholars to question whether religion perpetuates traditional gender roles and inequality e.

Gendered socialization is described as an inherent factor affecting the lower representation of women heading religious establishments Cornwall, 1 9 8 8.

The nexus of religion, gender, identity, human rights and politics is another subject that has been observed in different parts of the globe.

As Florence Rochefort points out, the interplay between the political and religious spheres is crucial in the social -cultural construction and organization of gender roles.

Religions contribute to fostering gender ideologies that are linked to cultural heritage, political and moral values, as well as to forms of authority and hierarchy.

Religious phenomena have contributed to the questioning of pivotal the -oretical concepts in gender studies, including that of agency.

Christian queens and saints are at the core of these studies and represent an important contribution in lling a gap inEthiopian history, which was mainly written from the male point of view Böll, 2 0 0 3 ; Belete Bizuneh, 2 0 0 1 ; Selamawit Mecca, 2 0 0 6 , 2 0 0 9 ; Wion, 2 0 1 2.

Women, Gender and Religions in Ethiopia It has been noticed that both Christian and Muslim hagiographies tend to underrepresent women saints Selamawit Mecca, 2 0 0 6 ; Bruzzi, 2 0 1 1 ; Meron Zeleke, 2 0 1 5 , and that the literary production at large overshadows women subjects in the historical process.

While observing how ritual practices are divided along on gender -based lines, contributors agreed in acknowledging the domination of men in formal ritual practices and the marginalization of women in the liturgy of the Orthodox Church.

In this vein, studies analyzed social and historical processes of the construction of femininity Wright, 2 0 0 2 and masculinity Persoon, 2 0 0 2 ; Fisseha Tadesse, 2 0 0 2 ; Bromber, 2 0 0 7 in the Christian Orthodox Church.

Other studies focused instead on gender dynamics related to Christian and Islamic sainthood Gibb, 2 0 0 0 ; Marcus, 2 0 0 2.

The present special issue addresses the anthropological and historical analysis of the relation and intersection of gender and religion mainly in Ethiopia, but with a case study also on Eritrea.

The relation, confrontation and intersection of gender and religion is analyzed with a focus on women, taking into consideration themultiple and changingmanifestations of religion in the diverse social and cultural contexts of the region.

The authors re ect critically on gender in its interpretative and imaginative dimensions and as a fundamental principle of social ordering and a socially constructed phenomenon.

To do so, a plurality of sources, methodologies and approaches are employed. The questions addressed by the different contributions in this special issue focus on such issues as: what are the various roles women play in different religious establishments?

How is the social construction of gender portrayed in the different religious landscapes of the region? Howis religiosity expressed in the everyday lives of women?

The contributions point out how well -established gender roles can alternatively be imposed, supported, negotiated, subverted or contested in religious practices and discourses which otherwise are thought to be independent domains not affected by non -spiritual worldviews.

Available ethnographic works hint at the discourse of authenticity and howgender is acted out in the debates of religious orthodoxy Meron Zeleke, 2 0 1 3.

The direct and indirect role of religion in gender -based violence is another important topic addressed by scholars Hirut Terefe, 2 0 0 2. Several works.

Zar is also considered to be a healing cult that empowers individuals, mainly women, through a kind of group therapy Messing, 1 9 5 8 ; Vecchiato, 1 9 9 3 ; Boddy, 1 9 8 8.

In Sudan, Janice Boddy has focused on the feminine body of a possessed medium as the site of a struggle out of which a subaltern discourse and gender relations are expressed, and in which through trances, women have the opportunity to claimthe action space that is otherwise denied them in their everyday lives.

Concerns and anxieties about reproductive diseases that might lead to divorce or polygamy are relieved by resorting to zar. Through spirit possession, with the support of foreign bodies from a parallel, yet separate world, women can reaf rm, criticize and reinterpret cultural values while avoiding the shame that would otherwise be brought on them by abandonment of traditional values.

In this way, human con icts are reconciled. The relationship between possession cults and power also merits special attention. Their existence was not widely known to the outside world for many years, and they likewise were not aware of other Jewish groups outside of their own community.

After this, Operation Moses and Operation Solomon , conducted in and , respectively, airlifted the vast majority of the Ethiopian Jewish population to Israel, where there is currently a population of , Beta Israel.

A small Jewish community still exists in Ethiopia, although it is mostly composed of Falash Mura , Ethiopian Jews who converted to Christianity in the past, and as such have not been recognized as Jews by the State of Israel, but have returned to Judaism the Falash Mura now number some 22, An estimated 2.

The largest numbers of practitioners of traditional religions are in the SNNPR about , people and Oromia , Ethiopia is the spiritual homeland of the Rastafari movement , whose adherents believe Ethiopia is Zion.

The Emperor himself was the defender of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, that also has a concept of Zion, although it represents a unique and complex concept, referring figuratively to St.

Mary , but also to Ethiopia as a bastion of Christianity surrounded by Muslims and other religions, much like Mount Zion in the Bible [ citation needed ].

It is also used to refer to Axum , the ancient capital and religious centre of Ethiopian Orthodox Christians, or to its primary church, called Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion.

Freedom of religion is provided by the constitution of , and freedom of worship had also been guaranteed by the and Constitutions of Ethiopia, although in certain localities this principle is not always respected in practice.

There is no state religion, and it is forbidden to form political parties based upon religion; all religious groups are required to register with the government, and renew their registration once every three years.

It is a crime in Ethiopia to incite one religion against another. Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church published works by an unknown author written in Ge'ez and translated to Amharic in which claimed Habesha should refrain from sexual intercourse with Oromo , Muslims, Shanqella , Falasha and animals because it was an abomination.

S ambassador David H. Shinn stated in that the Ethiopian leadership continued to be largely Christian. In December several mosques and Muslim owned businesses were attacked in the Christian dominated Amhara Region.

In the Hadith , Prophet Mohammed explicitly prohibited jihad against the Abyssinians as long as they were not hostile to Muslims. In the early fourteenth century Emperor Amda Seyon launched a crusade against the neighboring Muslim state of Ifat Sultanate , several mosques were demolished.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 1 August Islam Pentay Protestantism Traditional faiths 2.

Roman Catholicism 0. Others 0. Main article: Christianity in Ethiopia. Main article: Islam in Ethiopia. Main article: Beta Israel.

See also: Waaq. Retrieved 16 March The History of Islam in Africa. Ohio University Press. Oxford University Press.

Tablets of the Divine Plan Paperback ed. Research notes. Retrieved 21 December The Ministry of the Custodians — The Association of Religion Data Archives.

Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 30 August Islamic Reform in Twentieth-Century Africa. Edinburgh University Press.

Journey to the End of Islam. Soft Skull Press. Tilburg University. Al Jazeera. Wallis 1 August Ancient and Medieval Ethiopian History to

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